Pirates and Princesses and Grog!

Arrr, mateys! This Victoria Day weekend, pirates and princesses are coming to Black Creek Pioneer Village! While we’re sure you’ll be very excited to taste our Apricot Ale (already fermenting in the cellar!), our salty pirate friends might be looking for grog.

They’ll be out of luck, because as you know, the Black Creek Historic Brewery is entirely beer-oriented. However, grog has a history all of its own.

Woodcut: "Ship of Fools." I wonder what that man at right is drinking?

Woodcut: “Ship of Fools.” I wonder what that man at right is drinking?

Essentially, grog is a mix of water and rum, often with citrus juices added to help prevent scurvy. British Vice-Admiral Edward Vernon introduced it to his crew in the 1740s. Because of the grogham coat he wore, the Vice Admiral was nicknamed Old Grogham, or Old Grog. Soon enough, the name grog stuck to the beverage as well!

But why give sailors alcohol? During long ocean voyages, access to clean drinking water is absolutely vital. However, desalinating seawater isn’t terribly practical, which leads us to the conundrum of, “Water, water, everywhere – and not a drop to drink.” Fresh water was stored in casks, but quickly grew stagnant and full of algae. Beer and/or wine helped improve the taste, and so became an important part of life aboard ship.

When England conquered Jamaica in 1655, rum took over as the spirit of choice. Rum is derived from sugarcane byproducts – either molasses or sugarcane juice – fermented and distilled. As more and more sugar planters set up shop in the Caribbean, you can imagine how keen they were to have the navy as a robust market! In fact, the British Navy only stopped its rum ration in 1970, and the New Zealand Royal Navy continued right until 1990!

Of course, the navy wasn’t the only group that enjoyed its rum. There’s a longstanding association between pirates and rum as well – British privateers traded in this sweet commodity. Yet while movies suggest that grog and pirates go together like an IPA and a hot summer day, pirates often took their rum in the form of bumbo.

Rum-gone

Bumbo mixes rum, water, sugar, and nutmeg (sometimes cinnamon instead). Pirates were less concerned about adding citrus juices. Their relatively short voyages meant that they were much less likely to develop scurvy, so they wanted something both intoxicating and delicious!

Of course, rum, grog, and bumbo were all products of, as well as contributors to, a global network of trade and colonialism that was in full swing by our time period here at Black Creek. Rum facilitated longer voyages; and rum production itself developed through British expansion. Ah, historical forces feeding upon each other. Something to ponder, as you sip our Apricot Ale over the long weekend!

Until next time,

Katie

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2016: We’re Back!

Hello, Beer-Lovers!

It is good to see you all again! It’s been a long, cold (and busy…very busy) winter away from our lovely Black Creek Historic Brewery.

(I did try some interesting beers, though. Highlights include the Mean Old Tom—a mouthwatering stout from the Maine Beer Company—and the Koru—a Belgian pale ale with a New Zealand twist, from our friends at Beau’s All-Natural Brewing.)

But I know we’ve all missed Ed’s historic brews. Happily, Black Creek is now open for our 2016 season, and our fridges are already full! Currently, we have our Porter, Stout, and India Pale Ale all ready for purchase and sampling. And there’s more on the way! Here is our 2016 Specialty Ale Lineup!

*drumroll, please*

growler

May – Apricot Ale

June – Ginger Ale

July – Maple Brown Ale

August – Simcoe Hopped Ale

September – Fresh Hop/Wet Hop Pale Ale

October – Whiskey Barrel Aged Brown Ale, Honey Brown Ale & Pumpkin Ale

November – Gingerbread Stout (Katie raises a curious, appreciative eyebrow)

December – Winter Warmer

What else can you expect for 2016?

More sampling!

That’s right, we now have another beer sampling block! From 12:30 pm – 1:30 pm daily, you can visit us in the historic brewery, try a flight, purchase/return growlers, and have a chat with your friendly neighbourhood Beer Experts.

Tours!

Our ever-beloved Historic Brewery Tour is back! Pick up your tour ticket from Admissions, and then join us on the Half Way House porch, daily at 2:00 pm. We’ll meet 1860s drinkers and temperance advocates, explore brewing processes and ingredients, and lift a glass to Queen and Country!

John Lewis Krimmel 's "Village Tavern" (1814-1815).

First stop on the tour: our taproom, very similar to this one shown in John Lewis Krimmel ‘s “Village Tavern” (1814-1815).

Apprenticeships!

Once again, Ed is looking for eager apprentices to brew side-by-side with him! Spend the day at the village learning brewing secrets straight from the master himself, join our Beer Expert on tour, and then take a growler home with you! Spots are filling fast (already!), so book early to avoid disappointment!

This Blog!

Yes, I have returned from my winter hibernation! Look for news, updates, and assorted beer history right here on this site—new posts go up on alternate Thursdays.

barrel_l

We’re really looking forward to another season at the Black Creek Historic Brewery, and we hope you are, too! It’s funny—every year in May, I shake my head, because I can’t imagine how we’ll fit all of our tours, specialty beers, events, and tastings in. There’s always so much happening at Black Creek!

And yet—and yet, the year flies by. It always does, when you’re having fun.😀

We’re glad to be back. See you in the brewery!

Katie

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Last Call!

Hello, beer-lovers! It seems hard to believe, but we’ve nearly reached the end of our season here at the Black Creek Historic Brewery. Black Creek closes for the season on Wednesday, December 23rd, 2015. So, you’ve got one more week to come down, stock up on growlers (the Winter Warmer is out and lovely and citrus-y), join us for tours and samplings, and of course, celebrate with us during our final Christmas by Lamplight evening.

banner-bcpv-home-xmas-lamplight

We will be back on May 1st, 2016, stocked with beer and full of cheer.

Photo by James Bowers.

Photo by James Bowers.

Need your beer/beer history fix before that? Don’t worry! Our commercial brews will be available in the LCBO all winter long. The Rifleman’s Ration is a permanent listing (you can also get it from the Beer Store, if you so choose), the Benson Strong Ale will be out for a while, and you can check the LCBO website to see what other seasonal favourites are in stock!

This blog will go quieter as I make my habitual trips southward (I am not a cold-weather creature), but I’ll still be popping up occasionally. After all, I’ve had some very fine beers and beer-adventures in the States, and I look forward to sharing my explorations with you!

So to round out 2015, I’d like to indulge in a moment of sentimentality. ‘Tis the season, after all.

I love our little brewery. I really do. My very first Christmas by Lamplight, I was assigned there as an extra pair of hands. The moment I walked in, that was it for me. I loved it.

I love my perch on the barstool. You can see everything from there: the gleaming copper brew-kettle, and the squat mash tun, and the casks all neatly stacked and waiting. It’s a little space. A tucked-away space. But it’s full of the sweet smell of barley, and the steam that creeps along the ceiling when Ed cools the wort.

It’s a little space, but it fits a lot of people, and I think that’s what I love most of all—the stories and the people we meet, and the eyes that light up when someone tries something they really like. Every tour, every sample—you make each one unique, each one memorable. Thank you for that. Truly.

It’s a little space, our brewery .

And it’s home.

Casks

To Queen and Country!

Katie

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Benson Strong Ale at the LCBO!

Hear ye, hear ye!

We are releasing a new LCBO beer – the Benson Strong Ale. You may have tried its predecessor – the Olde Ale – at the Black Creek Historic Brewery this past summer. This ale is our interpretation of Thomas Benson’s recipe for “Strong Beer”. This recipe was very kindly passed along to us by the Ontario Archives – a very big and heartfelt thank you to them! Without their generosity and diligent research, this beer would not have been possible.

Photo by James Bowers.

Photo by James Bowers.

The Benson Strong Ale rings in at 6%. It pours fairly dark, coppery amber. Additions of star anise (which produces flavours similar to Benson’s liquorice root) and molasses lend this beer a smooth, complex sweetness. Like our summertime experiment, this beer has a touch of cayenne pepper. As we learned last week from our primary source investigations last week, such spices could be used to “liven” up beer and give it a little extra kick. The cayenne here is quite subtle: just a bit of warmth running into the chest on the finish. Mouthfeel: medium weight, and a round body. This isn’t your usual 2015 beer – but it’s a highly drinkable, satisfying brew.

And more excitement! This Saturday, December 5th, Ed and I are making a trip to Peterborough to officially launch the Benson Strong Ale (Thomas Benson was the first mayor of Peterborough, you see, taking office in 1850!). If you’re in the area, come out, say hi, and try some beer!

In other news, tomorrow also marks our first Christmas by Lamplight celebration, during which we’re officially releasing this year’s Winter Warmer. Tasting notes on that to come.

We’re finishing 2015 with a bang, so hold on tight!

Katie

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“Death in the Pot” – Beer Adulteration in the 1800s

Here at the Black Creek Historic Brewery, our standard roster of beers is made from four ingredients: malted barley, hops, water, and yeast. That’s it, as per tradition, the 1516 Reinheitsgebot (German Beer Purity Law) and several British Acts of Parliament. (Some of our specialty brews are different—but hey, they’re specialty brews for a reason!)

Frontispiece of Frederick Accum's treatise on the adulteration of food. Found on Archive.org!

Frontispiece of Frederick Accum’s treatise on the adulteration of food. Found on Archive.org!

In the 1800s, however, things could be less cut-and-dried. Adulteration of food and beverage ran rampant in an era before modern regulations, and beer was no exception. I found two treatises from the 1820s bemoaning impurities in their flour, their tea, and their beer. These writers identified some main reasons for adulterating ales:

Increasing intoxicating effects

Basically, the alcohol content is beer is determined by the sugar content (yeast metabolize sugar to alcohol), which is in turn dependent on the proportion of malt you’ve used. Following the Napoleonic Wars, the price of malt spiked. Some brewers, therefore, found other ways to add some “cheer” to your cup.

Opium, poppy extract, and tobacco could all be added to beer to make it feel like you were getting drunk more quickly. More common was cocculus indicus: the fruit of the Indian berry plant: a potent narcotic.

Increasing bitterness

Say you’re a little short on hops. What else can you use? Bitter herbs and plants like aloes, wormwood, horehound, bitter oranges, and quassia (a flowering tree) could all be used to mimic hops’ particular astringency. Now, there’s nothing necessarily wrong with flavouring your beer with herbs—medieval gruit beers took a combination of rosemary, bog myrtle, and sweet rosemary. However, hops contain oils that act as preservatives. Beers made without them simply don’t keep as long.

Colouring dark beers

In the 1820s, brewers were making porters from a blend of brown and pale malts. As mentioned, the Napoleonic Wars increased barley prices—and brewers discovered they could make more wort from pale malts. However, customers expected porters to be dark, and the pale malts weren’t cutting it.

So instead, brewers boiled down sugar to a black colour. Once added to the wort, it would darken it. Burnt treacle and sugar also mimicked the roasted tastes and sweeter finish of a porter. Sugar and molasses could also add fermentable sugars if your grain bill was lacking.

“Aging” beers

In the early modern period through the early 1800s, it was common for brewers to make two types of beer: aged (or “stale”) beer and mild beers. Aged/old beers had a sharper taste, whereas mild beers were…well, milder and a bit sweeter. In taverns, it was quite common to order and serve a mixture of both, but sometimes, unscrupulous brewers and tavernkeepers added a shot of old ales to mild ones in order to “age” them. Apparently, combining assorted dregs and leftovers into a single cask wasn’t unheard of, either!

Now, adulteration was generally slammed as a means of cutting corners and saving costs. But looking to early-nineteenth century Ontario, I wonder if adulteration sometimes resulted from necessity or desperation. Adding molasses when you didn’t have enough barley would result in a higher-alcohol beer, and additives like capsicum might well have helped liven taste when brewing ingredients were scarce (both molasses and capsicum/cayenne were ingredients in Thomas Benson’s ale, incidentally—he seemed unbothered).

While I certainly don’t want opium or tobacco in my beer, I’m all right with a bit of ginger. Maybe even treacle, depending on the style. Then and now, transparency about brewing method and ingredients is the key.:)

-Katie

 

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New Brew: Elderflower Stout

A new month, a new brew.:)

Elderflowers in a basket (source: Wikimedia Commons)

Elderflowers in a basket (source: Wikimedia Commons)

Our November specialty beer launches this weekend! This month at the Black Creek Historic Brewery, Ed has crafted an Elderflower Stout. Elderflowers are flowering hedgerow plants or shrubs. They’re identifiable by their feathery white sprays of flowers and small, dark berries. Both flowers and berries are frequently used in cooking and baking (the leaves, roots, and sticks can leave you pretty sick, though).

The indomitable Mrs. Beeton tells us:

The elder-berry is well adapted for the production of wine; its juice contains a considerable portion of the principle necessary for a vigorous fermentation, and its beautiful colour communicates a rich tint to the wine made from it.

Turns out it’s good for beer-making, too! The Elderflower Stout pours very dark indeed; black enough that you can’t see through it. At first sniff, I thought, “Wine,” but then richer, more chocolate aromas came through. Those carried through the flavours as well­—chocolate and roasted grains carry things at first, but then the elderflowers emerge in the mid-taste. They give a subtle, floral edge to the beer: a hint of grape-like fruitiness. The BBC’s food writer likens elderflowers’ aroma to a “heady Muscat grape,” so the very strong wine character I’m getting isn’t too surprising!

This beer is medium-bodied: some weight on the tongue, but nothing too heavy. It’s very round and smooth, with a dry finish. This would make a good dessert beer, I think, perhaps paired with some lighter tea-cakes or scones.

The Elderflower Stout launches this weekend, and will last until we’re out. Come on down for a floral taste in the middle of November! (And don’t forget, Black Creek’s Christmas events and activities begin November 21st!)

Cheers,

Katie

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Taddle Creek and Enoch Turner

“Lost” rivers continue to fascinate us here at the Black Creek Historic Brewery. We’ve talked about them before – all those brewers in Queen West, along the banks of the now-forgotten Garrison Creek. This week, we’ve turned our gaze slightly north to Taddle Creek.

Taddle Creek (courtesy www.lostrivers.ca)

Taddle Creek (courtesy http://www.lostrivers.ca)

Taddle and Garrison Creeks actually started from similar locations: roughly around St. Clair Ave, slightly west of Bathurst Street. But while Garrison Creek meandered through Christie Pits, Bickford Park, Little Italy, and Trinity Bellwoods before ending up at the Toronto Garrison, Taddle Creek swung east towards Avenue Rd, cut through U of T (if you visit Philosopher’s Walk, you can walk along the old streambed) and eventually emptied into the harbour near the Distillery District.

At least one brewer set up operations on the banks of Taddle Creek. Enoch Turner (1790-1866) emigrated to Canada from Staffordshire, arriving to York in the late 1820s. He established a brewery around Parliament and Front Sts, in the curve of the Taddle Creek.

Unfortunately, a massive fire destroyed the brewery in 1832. Fortunately, Turner had clearly made friends amongst the citizens of York. Several nearby businessmen gave him loans (including his neighbor James Worts) and the Toronto Circus donated the proceeds from a benefit performance. The 1834 City Directory lists Turner back in his old spot at Palace St (the old name for Front) “…near the windmill.” That windmill, the directory also tells us, belonged to Gooderham and Worts.

The 1851 Directory and Almanac describes the area thusly: “Palace Street runs east from the Market-Square, towards the upper end of which Jarvis is situated. The principal private residences on this street are those of the Honourable Christopher Widmer and the cottage of Enoch Turner, Esq., which, with their tastefully laid out grounds, have a handsome appearance.”

Enoch Turner's home and brewery, surrounded by an arm of Taddle Creek. South is at top. (courtesy Toronto Public Library)

Enoch Turner’s home and brewery, surrounded by an arm of Taddle Creek. South is at top. (courtesy Toronto Public Library)

So it seems Mr. Turner had managed to rebuild himself quite nicely. And it seems he was an integral part of the community that had helped him back to his feet. The Almanac also lists both Turner and W. Gooderham as churchwardens at Trinity Church, and notes that “Adjoining the church is a handsome gothic School House, built by Enoch Turner, Esq., and given by him to the church. It is capable of accommodating 200 children. The Sunday School is in a flourishing condition.”

EnochTurner

Turner and his partner Samuel Platt decided to retire in 1854, selling the brewery. The Globe newspaper describes quite an impressive structure: “116 feet by 42 feet, two storeys high, independent of three capital stone cellars, paved with flags, also a spacious cellar 43 feet by 21 feet, with malt house and granary above…and every convenience for brewing and distilling on a very extensive scale…”

Enoch Turner died in 1866, by which point Taddle Creek had been filled in and submerged as far west as Elizabeth St. Much like Taddle Creek, however, Enoch Turner’s presence lingers in Toronto: in Trinity Church, his schoolhouse, and in the fond memories of him here at the Black Creek Historic Brewery.

-Katie

Further Reading

I highly recommend Lost Breweries of Toronto, by Jordan St. John: a very good survey of Enoch Turner and his colleagues.

 

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